Celine S Nicolas graduated in Veterinary Medicine and as a PhD from the University of Nantes (France). She then worked as a Post-doctoral fellow and Research Assistant at the University of Bristol (UK) for 5 years and at the University of Nice (France) for 2 years. She has published several articles in reputed journals and joined Virbac in 2016.
Dental chews are recommended by veterinary dentists1 as home dental care to help maintain teeth clean. Safety and digestibility of these chews is, however, a major concern. In vitro digestibility of the following 6 dental chews was investigated in an independent lab: Veggiedent® FR3SH™ (Virbac), Greenies™ Fresh (Mars), Oravet™ (Merial), Dentastix™ (Mars), Prozym® sticks (Ceva) and Hill\'s® Prescription Diet® Dental Care Chews (Hill’s). \r\n\r\nThe humidity level, protein content (Kjeldahl method), in vitro pepsic digestibility (sample heated for 48 hours at 40 °C in a solution of pepsin hydrochloride2) and ileal digestibility as described by Boisen et al.3 (first incubation with a pepsin solution, pH2 for 6h to mimic gastric digestion and second with a pancreatin solution, pH 6.8 for 18h to mimic small intestinal digestion) were evaluated. Results are expressed as the % of nitrogen content (protein) dissolved (for pepsic digestibility) and as the % of dry matter dissolved (ileal digestibility).\r\n\r\nThe humidity level ranged between 9.8% and 16.1% with a median of 13.5% and the protein content ranged between 6.5% and 43.1% of crude matter with a median of 15.55%. The results for pepsic and ileal digestibility were respectively of 100% and 100% for Veggiedent® FR3SH™; 96.5% and 91.8% for Greenies™, 100% and 98% for Oravet™, 96% and 100% for Dentastix™, 90.5% and 88.7% for Prozym® sticks and 97.2% and 100% for Hill\'s® Prescription Diet® dental care chews.\r\nVeggiedent® FR3SH™ is therefore totally digestible, as assessed by in vitro reference methods.\r\n\r\n \r\nFig: Pepsic (blue) and ileal (green) digestibility of 6 dental chews for dogs, measured in vitro.\r\n
Betul Kargul has completed her Graduation at Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry in 1986 and started to study as a PhD student in 1987. She has been lecturing and directing undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. Her research expertise is epidemiology, caries research in children, preventive dentistry and dental materials. She has published more than 90 referred papers and has more than 120 presentations in the international congresses. She was a Councilor in European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry from 2002-2012. Currently, she is working as a Full Professor in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School at Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
Aim: The aims of this research were to determine the epidemiological profile of dental caries in 4 to 6-year-old preschool children with two different caries indices-the standard df-t and Nyvad’s caries diagnostic criteria.\r\n \r\nMaterials & Methods: A total of 58 pre-school children with 1100 teeth in the age group of four to six years were selected for the study from among who applied to Marmara University, Dental School and Pediatric Dentistry clinic. Children teeth were cleaned and dried with cotton rolls and chip blower. The dental caries examinations were conducted under standardized conditions using plane mouth mirrors and explorers with the help of artificial illumination. The diagnostic criteria used were df-t and Nyvad ́s caries diagnostic criteria. Each tooth of all deciduous teeth was classified according to one of the following criteria: 0=sound; 1=active, surface intact; 2=active, surface discontinuity; 3=active, cavity; 4=inactive, surface intact; 5=inactive, surface discontinuity; 6=inactive, cavity; 7=filled; 8=filled with inactive lesion; 9=filled with active lesion; X=extracted.\r\n\r\nResults: The mean df-t was 10.8 (±4.69). Most of the teeth that caries experience consisted of tooth with active lesions (80.7%), of which 9.6% were non-cavitated. The mean number of teeth with non-cavitated inactive lesions was 4.27%. The mean df-t constituted 10.8; the majority of all second molars were affected (86.22%), followed by the first molars (83.11%).\r\n\r\nConclusions: Prevalence of caries was high indicating that the population studied had a high disease rate. The results obtained with the more detailed Nyvad’s caries diagnostic criteria were higher than the ones obtained with the standard df-t index for teeth.\r\n